It can be embarrassing to talk to your doctor about your sex life, but it's the best way to get treated and get back to being intimate with your partner. Your doctor can pinpoint the source of the problem and may recommend lifestyle interventions like quitting smoking or losing weight. Some introduction from our pharmacy sponsor: Bonus of generic cialis in sydney is a good choice for our visitors where one can order cialis online in sydney without a prescription with quick delivery in hands. Your doctor may recommend that you and your partner practice specific techniques to help delay ejaculation. These techniques may involve identifying and controlling the sensations that lead up to ejaculation and communicating to slow or stop stimulation. Other options include using a condom to reduce sensation to the penis or trying a different position (such as lying on your back) during intercourse. Counseling or behavioral therapy may help reduce anxiety related to premature ejaculation.The 10 largest drugs companies control over one-third of this market, several with sales of more than US billion a year and profit margins of about 30%. Some people can`t afford health insurance so they have choice to pay for the really expensive prescription drugs or look after cheap generic drugs online. Generics are potent and safe as other branded meds. Only supperior pharmacy produces them such as German Remedies. Having this in mind one may order orlistat uk in generic online pharmacy with free shipping worldwide Ethical promotion helps to ensure that healthcare professionals have access to information they need, that patients have access to the medicines they need and that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner that provides the maximum healthcare benefit to patients.

The Aurora Zone Blog

Science Explained: Will The Northern Lights Disappear?

It has been said that as we reach the 'Solar Minimum' stage of Solar Cycle 24, the Northern Lights will disappear from view.

DSC03126 13 2

For us to reassure you as to why this won’t happen we have to take a look at the science behind the magnificent Aurora Borealis.

At ‘Solar Maximum’, there are many sunspots on the Sun’s surface where streams of magnetic current arc in and out of the star. When these streams become particularly active, they can lead to bursts of plasma in the form of ‘coronal mass ejections’ (CMEs). This causes streams of charged particles, otherwise known as solar wind, to rush out into space. When these solar winds are directed toward the Earth, they interact with our planet’s magnetic field to create beautiful Aurora displays.

During ‘Solar Minimum’, CMEs occur less frequently but, happily, there is another source of solar wind and it is this second source which is more likely to provide Auroral displays during ‘Solar Minimum’.

1. Coronal Mass Ejection (CMEs) 

CMEs travel outwards from the Sun at speeds ranging from 100 - 3000 kilometres per second (source: Earth-directed CMEs can take anything from 14 hours to several days to reach our magnetosphere and when they do, the impact causes geomagnetic storms. These storms can result in spectacular Auroras, and when they are particularly violent can result in displays which are sometimes visible over a far broader geographical area than is usually the case.

As Solar Cycle 24 declines, we expect the number of CMEs to decrease and it will be the solar wind emanating from coronal holes (CH) on the Sun’s surface that will be the more likely cause of Auroral displays in the coming years. 

 2. Coronal holes (CHs)

Coronal holes are cooler regions on the Sun’s Corona where plasma is thinner and, as a result, they appear darker than the surrounding areas. You can see an extreme example of a coronal hole in NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory image below. The magnetism of coronal holes is different from the warmer and denser parts of the Sun and allows solar wind to escape into space.


When these solar winds interact with our atmosphere, they cause Auroral displays but, generally speaking, on a more localised level than CMEs. Consequently, such displays are unlikely to be of interest to Aurora watchers at low or middle altitudes.

Essentially, as Solar Cycle 24 declines, we fully expect the Northern Lights to continue their mesmeric dance, but they will be fuelled by less violent CHs rather than CMEs. Consequently, rumours of the lights’ demise have been greatly exaggerated but their appearances are likely to be limited to a much narrower KP band than they were at the peak of the Solar Cycle.


The Frequency of Coronal holes

The good news is that CHs are at their largest and most frequent before and during ‘Solar Minimum’. ‘Solar Maximum’ occurred in 2013 and as we are now in the declining stage, CHs are now appearing most regularly. At the time of writing in October 2016, the new Aurora season is underway and we are already seeing some magnificent displays in places like Finnish Lapland, such as the one below taken by Antti Pietikainen near Muonio.

 DSC3881 3


Persistent and Stable Coronal holes

Large polar coronal holes (PCHs) are persistent for about 7 years around ‘Solar Minimum’. During ‘Solar Maximum’ and high solar activity, CHs exist at all latitudes but are less persistent. The stability of PCHs means that unlike CMEs, they are often stable for two, three or even more solar rotations. With every rotation, there is a chance that earth-bound solar winds will cause Auroras at higher latitudes. For example, in 1973/1974, Skylab recorded a boot-shaped coronal hole (CH1) as it went through eight rotations; that’s seven more times than a CME!

1200px 40 Years Ago Skylab Paved Way for International Space Station


Solar Wind Speeds around Solar Minimum

As the Sun’s activity reduces, we might expect the speed of solar winds to decrease resulting in less violent Aurora-creating collisions with the particles in our atmosphere. Fortunately for Aurora lovers, this does not appear to be the case.

The now decommissioned Ulysses space probe made three “fast latitude scans” of the Sun over the course of two 'Solar Minimums' and one 'Solar Maximum'.  The probe’s first and second orbits confirmed that both fast and slow solar winds occur throughout the Sun’s 11-year activity cycle but the faster winds tend to be more prevalent during 'Solar Minimum'. 

Solar wind speeds measured by Ulysses Please credit European Space Agency 2


Solar Wind Speeds at Solar Minimum and Maximum

What Ulysses discovered was that solar wind from (PCHs) during Solar Minimum travelled at an average uniform speed of 750kms-1 (depicted by the length of the arrows on the left of the image above). By way of contrast, solar wind from Equatorial Polar Holes during Solar Maximum typically travelled at a much more sedate (by solar standards) 50kms-1(depicted by the length of the arrows on the right of the image above).

 Solar wind from PCHs is unlikely to be as widespread as that from lower latitudes on the Sun’s corona. The Earth orbits the Sun at pretty much equatorial level so the likelihood of solar winds from PHs being directed towards our magnetosphere is reduced to an extent during 'Solar Minimum'.

26.12 auroras 15

Nevertheless, the stability and persistence of these PCHs should ensure that fast solar winds interact with the particles in our atmosphere during and beyond 'Solar Minimum'. Indeed, as we stated earlier in this article, PCHs have historically appeared more frequently before and during 'Solar Minimum' and, having reached 'Solar Maximum' in 2013, that is the exact stage of the Solar Cycle that the Sun is entering right now.

So, contrary to the rumours, Aurora watchers won’t have to bid farewell to the Northern Lights as we pass through 'Solar Minimum'. However, the importance of your location will become more vital as Aurora displays become more localised.


©Antti Pietikainen, European Space Agency, NASA- Skylab, NASA

Read 771 times Last modified on Friday, 11 November 2016 14:01

Leave a comment

Make sure you enter all the required information, indicated by an asterisk (*). HTML code is not allowed.

Get an expert opinion

The Aurora Zone was born out of our love of all things wintery. We were already regular visitors to the likes of Norway, Finland, Sweden and Iceland thanks to a fascination with winter activities such as dog sledding, snowmobiling and the Scandinavian way of life. Many of our visits coincided with sightings of the Northern Lights and The Aurora Zone was born from a desire to share Mother Nature’s greatest wonder with as many people as possible. We have all been held in the Aurora’s thrall and our mission is to do our very best to ensure that our clients can experience that magical moment on their Northern Lights holiday.

Learn more about our experience
  • Specialist

    Aurora knowledge and experience

    Unique holidays, in the very best destinations

    Expert guides – exceptional local knowledge

    Advice and guidance every step of the way

  • Comprehensive

    We include more in our holidays than any other Aurora operator

    Price Comparison guarantee

    No ‘from’ prices, everything you see is included in the price

    No hidden extras

  • Independent

    Proudly Independent

    The original and still the only dedicated UK Northern Lights tour operator

    Personal, hands-on service

    Fair and sustainable work ethos

  • Trusted

    100% ATOL and ABTA protection

    Peace of mind promise


    Responsible relationships

    Over 15 years’ experience

MrZenTravel Website Development